Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies on Vitex Chrysocarpa (Planch ex Benth.)

Chinyere Veronica Ilodibia, John Chimezie Okafor, Ebele Esther Akachukwu, Ngozi Anasthesia Igboabuchi, Uju Maureen Chukwuma, Nkechi Ruffina Adimonyemma


Ethanolic leaf, stem and root extracts of Vitex chrysocarpa were investigated for the presence and composition of these phytochemicals (alkaloid, flavonoid, phenol, tannin, sterol, hydrogen cyanide, anthraquinone, saponin and terpenoid) using standard techniques. Their antimicrobial activities at different concentration against some selected clinical pathogens (bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fungal strain Aspergilus niger ) were also studied using agar diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration against the organisms was also evaluated. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed in data analysis. Qualitative and percent quantitative phytochemical results showed that Ethanolic leaf, stem and root extracts contained these phytochemicals assayed but at varied quantities. Antimicrobial studies indicated that the ethanolic leaf, root and stem extracts of Vitex chrysocarpa inhibited the growth of the pathogens but at varied levels and the inhibition was extracts concentration dependent. However, the extracts showed higher inhibition against the fungal strain than the bacterial strains. Inhibitory effect of the leaf extract was significantly higher than those of the stem and root extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration of 50mg/ml for S. aureus and E. coli, 25mg/ml for P.  aeruginosa and 12.50mg/ml for A. Niger. For the stem, the minimum inhibitory concentration is at 50mg/ml for S.  aureus and P.  aeruginosa , 75mg/ml for E.coli and 25mg/ml for A. Niger . For the root, minimum inhibitory concentration is at 75 mg/ml for S.  aureus and E.coli, 25mg/ml for P.  aeruginosa and 50mg/ml for A.niger.

Antibiotic had a better activity when compared to the extracts at the same concentration. The data obtained from this study showed that the plant possessed antimicrobial properties especially antifungal and could be used in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections but more especially the latter.


Vitex chrysocarpa, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration.

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