Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Selenium-Rich Black Tea Versus Regular Black Tea

Noor Hazarina Nordin, Abdul-Lateef Mo Wei-Hang Chua, Marlena Cathorina Kruger


Two black aqueous tea extracts of Camellia sinensis, (selenium-rich black tea (Se-BTE) and regular black tea (R-BTE)) were assessed for their total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties. Aqueous tea extracts were prepared using different extraction temperature and time. TPC was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while antioxidant activity was measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The R-BTE showed significantly higher TPC (P < 0.05) and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05) than the Se-BTE, which may be due to these being different cultivars, or differences in growing conditions. Our findings demonstrate that both extraction temperature and time are important determinants of extracted TPC and antioxidant activities of these teas. In addition and in contrary to our expectations, the high level of organic selenium in black tea did not enhance the antioxidant activity when compared with black tea containing very low level of organic selenium. Other elements and minerals may contribute to the high antioxidant activity detected in the regular black tea.


selenium-rich black tea; regular black tea; total phenolic contents; ferric-reducing/antioxidant power; DPPH-scavenging activity

Full Text:



Karori, S.M., Wachira, F.N., Wanyoko, J.K. and Ngure, R.M. (2007). Antioxidant capacity of different types of tea products. Afr. J. Biotech., 6: 2287-2296.

Ostadalova, M., Pazout, V., Straka, I., Tauferoya, A., Bartl, P. and Pokorna, J. (2011). Monitoring tea pigments theaflavins and thearubigins in dependence on the method and duration of storage. J. Food Technol., 9: 50-56.

Bandyopadhyay, P., Ghosh, A.K. and Ghosh, C. (2012). Recent developments on polyphenol-protein interactions: Effect on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system. Food Funct., 3: 592-605.

Das, A.S., Mukherjee, M., Das, D. and Mitra, C. (2009). Protective action of aqueous black tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (BTE) against ovariectomy-induced oxidative stress of mononuclear cells and its associated progression of bone loss. Phytother. Res., 23: 1287-1294.

Molan, A.L., Flanagan, J., Wei, W. and Moughan, P.J. (2009). Selenium-containing green tea has higher antioxidant and prebiotic activities than regular green tea. Food Chem., 114: 829-835.

Yuan, J-M., Sun, C. and Butler, L.M. (2011). Tea and cancer prevention: Epidemiological studies. Pharmacol. Res., 64: 123-135.

Jose, P.A. and Marco, A. (2012). Protective effects of chronic green tea consumption on age-related neurodegeneration. Curr. Pharm. Design, 18: 4-14.

Grove, K.A., Sae-tan, S., Kennett, M.J. and Lambert, J.D. (2011). (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits pancreatic lipase and reduces body weight gain in high fat-fed obese mice. Obesity, 20: 2311-2313.

Vuong, Q.V., Stathopoulos, C.E., Nguyen, M.H., Golding, J.B. and Roach, P.D. (2011). Isolation of green tea catechins and their utilization in the food industry. Food Rev. Int., 27: 227-247

Hu, Q., Xu, J. and Pan, G. (2001). Effect of selenium spraying on green tea quality. J. Sci. Food Agric., 81: 1387-1390.

Li, F., Wang, F., Yu, F., Fang, Y., Xin, Z., Yang, F., Xu, J., Zhao, L. and Hu, Q. (2008). In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activities of ethanolic extract of selenium-enriched green tea. Food Chem., 111: 165-170.

Jayathilakan, K., Sharma, G.K., Radhakrishna, K. and Bawa, A.S. (2007). Antioxidant potential of synthetic and natural antioxidants and its effect on warmed over-flavour in different species of meat. Food Chem., 105: 908-916.

Jayasekera, S., Molan, A.L., Garg, M. and Moughan, P.J. (2011). Variation in antioxidant potential and total polyphenol content of fresh and fully-fermented Sri Lankan tea. Food Chem., 125: 536-541.

De la Paix, M.J., Ge, J., Habiyaremye, G. and Nadege, T.L. (2010). Materials on rivers around tea growing areas of Rwanda. International Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology (ESIAT), 3: 406-411.

Astill, C., Birch, M.R., Dacombe, C., Humphrey, P.G. and Martin, P. (2001). Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49: 5340-5347.

Bhattacharya, S. and Sen-Mandi, S. (2011). Variation in antioxidant and aroma compounds at different altitude: A study on tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) clones of Darjeeling and Assam, India. Afr. J. Biochem. Res., 5: 148-159.

Magoma, G.N., Wachira, F.N., Obanda, M., Imbuga, M. and Agong, S.G. (2000). The use of catechins as biochemical markers in diversity studies of tea (Camellia sinensis). Genet. Resour. Crop Ev., 47, 107-114.

Obanda, M., Owuor, P.O. and Mang'oka, R. (2001). Changes in the chemical and sensory quality parameters of black tea due to variations of fermentation time and temperature. Food Chem., 75: 395-404.

Dai, J. and Mumper, R.J. (2010). Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules, 15: 7313-7352.

Lakenbrink, C., Lapczynski, S., Maiwald, B. and Engelhardt, U.H. (2000). Flavonoids and other polyphenols in consumer brews of tea and other caffeinated beverages. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48: 2848-2852.

Su, X., Duan, J., Jiang, Y., Duan, X. and Chen, F. (2007) Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activities of oolong tea infusion under various steeping conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 8: 1196-1205.

Robinson, E.E., Maxwell, S.R.J. and Thorpe, G.H.G. (1997). An investigation of the antioxidant activity of black tea using enhanced chemiluminescence. Free Rad. Res., 26: 291-302.

Komes, D., Horžić, D., Belščak, A., Ganić, K.K. and Vulić, I. (2010). Green tea preparation and its influence on the content of bioactive compounds. Food Res. Int., 43: 167-176.

Kim, D.O., Lee, K.W., Lee, H.J. and Lee, C.Y. (2002). Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 3713-3717.

Katalinic, V., Milos, M., Kulisic, T. and Jukic, M. (2006). Screening of 70 medicinal plants extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenolics. Food Chem., 94: 550-557.

Vamanu, E. and Nita, S. (2013). Antioxidant capacity and the correlation with major phenolic compounds, anthocyanin, and tocopherol content in various extracts from the wild edible Boletus edulis mushroom. Biomed. Res. Int., 2013: 1-11.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 American Journal of Life Science Researches

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.